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The Horticulture Branch of the Archaeological Survey of India is a specialized Branch responsible for developing, landscaping and maintaining the environment in and around the centrally protected monuments having the aim:-

1. Conserving by creating microclimatic conditions in the protected limits.
2. Enhance & improve the aesthetic out look.
3. Check the prying eyes of the encroachers
4. Maximize the tourist flow towards the sites.
5. Introduction of periodic flora matching the monuments.


Before creation of Horticulture Branch in Archaeological Survey of India, there were only few gardens around the monuments of Delhi and Agra only which were maintained by C.P.W.D/P.W.D. and State Horticulture Departments on deposit basis, but these departments were not maintaining the gardens according to archaeological norms, as a result the proposal to have an independent Horticulture Branch in the Survey was mooted by Sir Mortimer Wheeler, the then Director General of the Survey. Later on, this resolution was also endorsed in the Central Cabinet represented by Shri Maulana Azad, the then Education Minister (at that time Archaeological Survey of India comes under Ministry of Education in 1949). On the approval of this proposal Garden Branch came into existence in 1950.


The Horticulture Branch I of Archaeological survey of India works with objective of revival of ancient garden and environment development as per nature of monument including the maintenance of existing garden in India.

The gardens maintained by Archaeological survey of India are of two types:

Those pertaining to monuments which had gardens around them as a part of their original design, and.
Those, usually not as elaborate, which are intended to beautify monuments originally without the appendage of gardens.

Under the first category monuments comes under those are erected by the Mughal Emperor, who were renowned for their love of ornamental gardens and orchards. In such cases, traces of the old flower-beds and alignment of water-channels, both for decoration and for irrigation, are in many cases still extant. Such monuments include Humayun’s tomb, Safdarjung Tomb, Red Fort at Delhi, Bibi-Ka-Maqbara at Aurangabad, the palaces at Pinjore, Taj Mahal Agra, Akbar’s Tomb Sikandra, Itimad-ud-daula’s Tomb and Ram Bagh at Agra. The monuments erected by famous Hindu fortress under the Solanki king of Gujarat such monument Champaner -Pawagarh, Rani-ki-Vav, Patan, Sahastralinga Talao, Patan erected monument by Jat rulers at Deeg  such as Deeg Palaces, Deeg , Bharatpur Fort  Distt. Bahratpur Rajasthan monument erected by the ruler of several dynasty as Mauryas, Partiharas, Paramaras and Solanki of Chittorgarh Fort (Rajasthan),  such as group of gardens at Chittorgarh fort, Chittorgarh, monument erected by Chalukyan dynasty as group of temples garden Aihole, monument erected by Chola dynasty as Sri Bridadeshwara Temple garden, G.K.C. Puram Ariyalur, Sri Airavateshwara Temple garden, Darasuram, Thanjavur, Gingee Fort, Gingee, Villupuram, monument erected by Portuguese at Velha Goa as Church Complex garden, Velha Goa, monument erected by Adilshah dynasty at Golgumbad as Golgumbad garden Bijapur, monument erected by Tipu Sultan at Srirangapatna as Gumbaz garden Srirangapatna, monument erected by British east India company at Kerla as Tellicherry fort garden, Kerla, monument erected by Ganga dynasty at Konark as Sun Temple garden, Konark.
In other cases, e.g. the Qutub and Lodhi monuments at Delhi, the gardens are primarily intended to provide a setting for the monuments and to make the surroundings attractive. While a greater freedom in their lay-out may be allowed here than in the preceding category.

Some of the gardens maintained by horticulture branch ASI on the basis of theme of monument are :
1. Tomb 2. Fort 3. Mosque 4. Church
  5.Temple 6. Palace 7. Stupa  8. Minars
  9.  Caves 10.Excavated Sites  

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