The Horticulture Branch of the Archaeological Survey of
India is a specialized Branch responsible for developing,
landscaping and maintaining the environment in and around
the centrally protected monuments having the aim:-
1. Conserving by creating microclimatic conditions in the
2. Enhance & improve the aesthetic out look.
3. Check the prying eyes of the encroachers
4. Maximize the tourist flow towards the sites.
5. Introduction of periodic flora matching the monuments.
Before creation of Horticulture Branch in Archaeological
Survey of India, there were only few gardens around the
monuments of Delhi and Agra only which were maintained by
C.P.W.D/P.W.D. and State Horticulture Departments on
deposit basis, but these departments were not maintaining
the gardens according to archaeological norms, as a result
the proposal to have an independent Horticulture Branch in
the Survey was mooted by Sir Mortimer Wheeler, the then
Director General of the Survey. Later on, this resolution
was also endorsed in the Central Cabinet represented by Shri
Maulana Azad, the then Education Minister (at that time
Archaeological Survey of India comes under Ministry of
Education in 1949). On the approval of this proposal Garden
Branch came into existence in 1950.
The Horticulture Branch I of
Archaeological survey of India works with objective of
revival of ancient garden and environment development as per
nature of monument including the maintenance of existing
garden in India.
The gardens maintained by Archaeological survey of India are of two types:
pertaining to monuments which had gardens around them as a part of
their original design, and.
usually not as elaborate, which are intended to beautify monuments
originally without the appendage of gardens.
Under the first
category monuments comes under those are erected by the Mughal
were renowned for their love of ornamental gardens and orchards. In
such cases, traces of the old flower-beds and alignment of
water-channels, both for decoration and for irrigation, are in many
cases still extant. Such monuments include Humayun’s tomb,
Safdarjung Tomb, Red Fort at Delhi, Bibi-Ka-Maqbara at Aurangabad,
the palaces at Pinjore, Taj Mahal Agra, Akbar’s Tomb Sikandra, Itimad-ud-daula’s
Tomb and Ram Bagh at Agra. The monuments erected by famous Hindu
fortress under the Solanki king of Gujarat such monument Champaner -Pawagarh,
Rani-ki-Vav, Patan, Sahastralinga Talao, Patan erected monument by Jat rulers at
Deeg such as Deeg
Palaces, Deeg , Bharatpur Fort Distt. Bahratpur Rajasthan monument erected by the ruler of several dynasty as Mauryas, Partiharas, Paramaras and Solanki of Chittorgarh
Fort (Rajasthan), such as group of gardens at Chittorgarh fort,
Chittorgarh, monument erected by Chalukyan dynasty as group of
temples garden Aihole, monument erected by Chola dynasty as Sri
Bridadeshwara Temple garden, G.K.C. Puram Ariyalur, Sri
Airavateshwara Temple garden, Darasuram, Thanjavur, Gingee Fort,
Gingee, Villupuram, monument erected by Portuguese at Velha Goa as
Church Complex garden, Velha Goa, monument erected by Adilshah
dynasty at Golgumbad as Golgumbad garden Bijapur, monument erected
by Tipu Sultan at Srirangapatna as Gumbaz garden Srirangapatna,
monument erected by British east India company at Kerla as
Tellicherry fort garden, Kerla, monument erected by Ganga dynasty at
Konark as Sun Temple garden, Konark.
In other cases, e.g. the Qutub and Lodhi monuments at Delhi, the
gardens are primarily intended to provide a setting for the
monuments and to make the surroundings attractive. While a greater
freedom in their lay-out may be allowed here than in the preceding
Some of the gardens maintained by horticulture branch ASI on the
basis of theme of monument are :